Nice graphic from the American Chemical Society’s Reactions page to mark the 45th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon Landing.
A look today at the chemicals behind insect repelling sprays.
Read more here, including a possible reason why mosquitos just prefer some people more than others: http://wp.me/p4aPLT-mS
Despite their high prevalence in daily life, repeated night-wakings and their cognitive and emotional consequences have received less research attention compared to other types of sleep disturbances. Our aim was to experimentally compare the effects of one night of induced infrequent night-wakings (of ∼15min, each requiring a purposeful response) and sleep restriction on sustained attention and mood in young adults.
In a within-between subjects counterbalanced design, 61 healthy adults (40 females; aged 20–29years) underwent home assessments of sustained attention and self-reported mood at two times: after a normal (control) sleep night, and after a night of either sleep restriction (4h in bed) or induced night-wakings (four prolonged awakenings across 8h in bed). Sleep was monitored using actigraphy and sleep diaries. Sustained attention was assessed using an online continuous performance test (OCPT), and mood was reported online using the Profile of Mood States (POMS).
Actigraphic data revealed good compliance with experimental sleep requirements. Induced night-wakings and sleep restriction both resulted in more OCPT omission and commission errors, and in increased depression, fatigue and confusion levels and reduced vigor compared to the normal sleep night. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the consequences of induced awakenings and sleep restriction.
Our pilot study indicates that, similar to sleep restriction, one night of life-like repeated night-wakings negatively affects mood and sustained attention."
— Kahn, M., Fridenson, S., Lerer, R., Bar-Haim, Y., & Sadeh, A. (2014). Effects of one night of induced night-wakings versus sleep restriction on sustained attention and mood: a pilot study. Sleep Medicine, 15(7), 825–32. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.03.016
The chemical compounds that give beer its bitterness, flavour, and aroma. Read more about how these compounds are produced in the brewing process here: http://wp.me/p4aPLT-mE
The model proposed is able to reproduce some of the real statistical properties of the price absolute returns observed in the Bitcoin real market. In particular, it is able to reproduce the autocorrelation of the absolute returns, and their cumulative distribution function. The simulator has been implemented using object-oriented technology, and could be considered a valid starting point to study and analyse the cryptocurrency market and its future evolutions."
Interesting infographical look at how a few thousand years of human intervention can result in a deliciously juicy summer treat. Most interesting? The percentage of sugar a peach holds has not gone up that much, only the edible flesh ratio and percent water have.
I should add that in this graphic, “artificial” just means that the modern peach was artificially selected by farmers who chose which variants to propagate, as opposed to being subject to the unguided processes of natural selection. I worry about the misconception that “artificial” here might be misconstrued into meaning “inferior” or “dangerous” or “fake”. It is none of those things.
Don’t fear the fruits of science. Especially the juicy ones.
Very good point - the ‘artificial’ in this graphic should maybe be something more along the lines of ‘selectively bred’ in order to avoid misconceptions.
I think it was made off the back of a video the creator saw on ‘natural’ bananas, which was seemingly ignorant of the fact that modern bananas were also very selectively bred from the original fruit. If you want to stick a ‘natural’ label on things, then it’s still natural, but quite removed from its original natural form, which is a small, dry pod, stuffed with seeds and rather hard flesh. A little less appetising.
Additionally, the banana in the form you know and love can’t reproduce by itself. It very much depends on human cultivation in order to survive. This cultivation prevents genetic diversity, so cultivated bananas are very vulnerable to diseases that can wipe out entire crops.
MY MOM HAS THIS NASTY THING WITH HER EYES RIGHT
WELL ANYWAY SHE HAD EYEDROPS
BUT THEY GAVE HER EYE AN ALLERGIC REACTION
AND IT CAUSED HER EYE TO GLOW IN THE DARK
AND SHE SAYS SHE ACTUALLY HAD GREEN/PURPLE NIGHT VISION
MY MOMS COOLER…
Social networking Web sites are amassing vast quantities of data and computational social science is providing tools to process this data. The combination of these two factors has significant implications for individuals and society. With announcements of growing data aggregation by both Google and Facebook, the need for consideration of these issues is becoming urgent. Just as Web 2.0 platforms put publishing in the hands of the masses, without adequate safeguards, computational social science may make surveillance, profiling, and targeting overly accessible.
The academic study of computational social science explains the field as an interdisciplinary investigation of the social dynamics of society with the aid of advanced computational systems. Such investigation can operate at the macro level of global attitudes and trends, down to the personal level of an individual’s psychology. This paper uses the lenses of computation social science to consider the uses and dangers that may result from the data aggregation social media companies are perusing. We also consider the role ethics and regulation may play in protecting the public."
— Smith, A., Lohrenz, T., King, J., Montague, P. R., & Camerer, C. F. (2014). Irrational exuberance and neural crash warning signals during endogenous experimental market bubbles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1318416111–. doi:10.1073/pnas.1318416111